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A study of typhoid fever in five Asian countries: disease burden and implications for controls

Bulletin of the World Health Organization

❶Scientists discover possible cause of colonial-era epidemic in Mexico An international team of scientists has identified the possible cause of a colonial-era epidemic in Mexico. Genome research conducted by the University of Warwick suggests that enteric fever, a potentially lethal disease more commonly found in hot countries, was present in medieval Europe.

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Public Sector and Administration. Password Forgot the password? Please login your your account. Request for Sample Report. Report can be used by individual purchaser only Site License: To know more information on Purchase by Section, please send a mail to sales [ ] kenresearch.

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This is a very well written report and accept my compliments on the same Related Products in vertical. Wish to Know more About Us. For Further Enquiry careers. HR will connect you within 14 days in case your resume gets shortlisted. We Need You Make a start to an incredible career. Know how We Roll Our services. Please refer to the attached brochure. If validation code does not match, please refresh the page. The test may be also falsely negative in the early course of illness.

However, unlike Typhidot test Widal test quantifies the specimen with titres. The typhidot test becomes positive within 2—3 days of infection and separately identifies IgM and IgG antibodies. IgM shows recent infection whereas IgG signifies remote infection. The most important limitation of this test is that it is not quantitative and result is only positive or negative.

The term 'enteric fever' is a collective term that refers to severe typhoid and paratyphoid. Sanitation and hygiene are important to prevent typhoid. Typhoid does not affect animals other than humans. Typhoid can only spread in environments where human feces are able to come into contact with food or drinking water. Careful food preparation and washing of hands are crucial to prevent typhoid. Industrialization, and in particular, the invention of the automobile, contributed greatly to the elimination of typhoid fever, as it eliminated the public health hazards associated with having horse manure in the public street which led to large number of flies.

Two typhoid vaccines are licensed for use for the prevention of typhoid: Both are efficacious and recommended for travellers to areas where typhoid is endemic. Boosters are recommended every five years for the oral vaccine and every two years for the injectable form.

To help decrease rates of typhoid fever in developing nations, the World Health Organization WHO endorsed the use of a vaccination program starting in Vaccinations have proven to be a great way at controlling outbreaks in high incidence areas.

Just as important, it is also very cost-effective. Because the price is low, poverty-stricken communities are more willing to take advantage of the vaccinations. Since the s there have been two typhoid fever vaccines recommended by the World Health Organization. The ViPS vaccine is given via injection, while the Ty21a is taken through capsules. The two different vaccines have been proven as a safe and effective treatment for epidemic disease control in multiple regions.

A version combined with hepatitis A is also available. The rediscovery of oral rehydration therapy in the s provided a simple way to prevent many of the deaths of diarrheal diseases in general. Where resistance is uncommon, the treatment of choice is a fluoroquinolone such as ciprofloxacin. Typhoid fever, when properly treated, is not fatal in most cases. Antibiotics , such as ampicillin , chloramphenicol , trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole , amoxicillin , and ciprofloxacin, have been commonly used to treat typhoid fever in microbiology.

Without treatment, some patients develop sustained fever, bradycardia, hepatosplenomegaly, abdominal symptoms and, occasionally, pneumonia. The highest case fatality rates are reported in children under 4 years. Surgery is usually indicated in cases of intestinal perforation. Most surgeons prefer simple closure of the perforation with drainage of the peritoneum.

Small-bowel resection is indicated for patients with multiple perforations. If antibiotic treatment fails to eradicate the hepatobiliary carriage, the gallbladder should be resected. Cholecystectomy is not always successful in eradicating the carrier state because of persisting hepatic infection. As resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin is now common, these agents have not been used as first—line treatment of typhoid fever for almost 20 years.

Ciprofloxacin resistance is an increasing problem, especially in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.

Many centres are shifting from using ciprofloxacin as the first line for treating suspected typhoid originating in South America, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, or Vietnam.

For these people, the recommended first-line treatment is ceftriaxone. Also, azithromycin has been suggested to be better at treating typhoid in resistant populations than both fluoroquinolone drugs and ceftriaxone. A separate problem exists with laboratory testing for reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin: In , typhoid fever caused an estimated Typhi is human-restricted, these chronic carriers become the crucial reservoir, which can persist for decades for further spread of the disease, further complicating the identification and treatment of the disease.

In industrialized nations, water sanitation and food handling improvements have reduced the number of cases. These areas have a lack of access to clean water, proper sanitation systems, and proper health care facilities. For these areas, such access to basic public health needs is not in the near future.

In BC, a plague , which some believe to have been typhoid fever, killed one-third of the population of Athens , including their leader Pericles. Following this disaster, the balance of power shifted from Athens to Sparta , ending the Golden Age of Pericles that had marked Athenian dominance in the Greek ancient world.

The ancient historian Thucydides also contracted the disease, but he survived to write about the plague. His writings are the primary source on this outbreak, and modern academics and medical scientists consider typhoid fever the most likely cause. In , a study detected DNA sequences similar to those of the bacterium responsible for typhoid fever in dental pulp extracted from a burial pit dated to the time of the outbreak. The cause of the plague has long been disputed and other scientists have disputed the findings, citing serious methodologic flaws in the dental pulp-derived DNA study.

A pair of epidemics struck the Mexican highlands in and , causing an estimated 7 to 17 million deaths. Some historians believe that the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia , died out from typhoid. Typhoid fever killed more than settlers in the New World between and A long-held belief is that 9th US President William Henry Harrison died of pneumonia , but recent studies suggest he likely died from typhoid. This disease may also have been a contributing factor in the death of 12th US President Zachary Taylor due to the unsanitary conditions in Washington, D.

During the American Civil War , 81, Union soldiers died of typhoid or dysentery , far more than died of battle wounds. The worst year was , when the typhoid death rate was per , people.

During the Spanish—American War , American troops were exposed to typhoid fever in stateside training camps and overseas, largely due to inadequate sanitation systems. Major Walter Reed , Edward O.

Shakespeare, and Victor C. Vaughan were appointed August 18, , with Reed being designated the President of the Board. The Typhoid Board determined that during the war, more soldiers died from this disease than from yellow fever or from battle wounds. The Board promoted sanitary measures including latrine policy, disinfection, camp relocation, and water sterilization, but by far the most successful antityphoid method was vaccination, which became compulsory in June for all federal troops.

The most notorious carrier of typhoid fever, but by no means the most destructive, was Mary Mallon , also known as Typhoid Mary. In , she became the first carrier in the United States to be identified and traced.

She was a cook in New York who was closely associated with 53 cases and three deaths. Mary quit her job, but returned later under a false name. She was detained and quarantined after another typhoid outbreak. She died of pneumonia after 26 years in quarantine. During the course of treatment of a typhoid outbreak in a local village in , English country doctor William Budd realised the "poisons" involved in infectious diseases multiplied in the intestines of the sick, were present in their excretions, and could be transmitted to the healthy through their consumption of contaminated water.

In , Karl Joseph Eberth described a bacillus that he suspected was the cause of typhoid. Today, the bacillus that causes typhoid fever goes by the scientific name Salmonella enterica enterica , serovar Typhi. Wright further developed his vaccine at a newly opened research department at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in London from , where he established a method for measuring protective substances opsonin in human blood.

Citing the example of the Second Boer War , during which many soldiers died from easily preventable diseases, Wright convinced the British Army that 10 million vaccine doses should be produced for the troops being sent to the Western Front , thereby saving up to half a million lives during World War I. For the first time, their casualties due to combat exceeded those from disease.

In , Frederick F. Russell , a U. Army physician, adopted Wright's typhoid vaccine for use with the US Army , and two years later, his vaccination program became the first in which an entire army was immunized.

It eliminated typhoid as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the U. Most developed countries saw declining rates of typhoid fever throughout the first half of the 20th century due to vaccinations and advances in public sanitation and hygiene.

In , the chlorination of public drinking water was a significant step in the US in the control of typhoid fever. The first permanent disinfection of drinking water in the U. Credit for the decision to build the chlorination system has been given to John L. Today, the incidence of typhoid fever in developed countries is around five cases per million people per year. A notable outbreak occurred in Aberdeen , Scotland , in This was due to contaminated tinned meat sold at the city's branch of the William Low chain of stores.

In —05 an outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo resulted in more than 42, cases and deaths. The disease has been referred to by various names, often associated with symptoms, such as gastric fever, enteric fever, abdominal typhus, infantile remittant fever, slow fever, nervous fever, and pythogenic fever.

Essay title: Typhoid Fever

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Typhoid Fever News and Research RSS. Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. In the United States about cases occur each year, and 75% of these.

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Typhoid; Enteric fever. Research Research Listen. Research helps us better understand diseases and can lead to advances in diagnosis and treatment. lists trials that are related to Typhoid fever. Click on the link to go to to read descriptions of these studies. MedlinePlus was designed .

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Typhoid Fever-Pipeline Review, H2 Summary Global Markets Direct's latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Typhoid Fever-Pipeline Review, H2 , provides an overview of the Typhoid Fever . Typhoid Fever Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection characterized by diarrhea, systemic disease, and a rash -- most commonly caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi (S. typhi). Causes The bacteria that causes typhoid fever -- S. typhi -- spreads through contaminated food, drink, or water.

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Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. Typhoid fever is rare in industrialized countries. However, it remains a serious health threat in the developing world, especially for children. Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi). The disease remains an important public health problem in developing countries. The disease remains an important public health problem in developing countries.