Within sociological theory, many of the activities engaged in by organized crime come under the concept of white-collar crime. Analysis of white collar crime focuses on two types: Since white collar crime is intermingled with legitimate business activities and often involves complex and sophisticated technical actions, detection is very difficult.
Technically speaking, when a corporation commits an offense, this is called "corporate crime" or "organizational crime," which is considered one type of white-collar crime. This division of white collar crime categories into two types, occupational and corporate, was advanced by Clinard and Quinney in the s, and it remains influential to this day Green, Another aspect of white-collar crime that can be either individual or organized is governmental or political crime, for instance, lawmakers trading their influence and legislative votes for money and gifts.
In addition to crimes deemed to be white collar in nature, RICO provides penalties for gambling, extortion, prostitution, narcotics trafficking, loan sharking and murder. Punishment under RICO can be extremely harsh, including fines and up to 20 years in prison. Additionally, the defendant must forfeit any claims to the money or property obtained from the criminal enterprise or obtained from any criminal enterprise barred under RICO White-collar, Despite decades of corporate criminal offenses, it was not until that Congress enacted legislation that seriously penalized corporate wrongdoing.
Those convicted of committing securities fraud faced up to 25 years in prison. Also contained within the act was the directive that the Federal U. Sentencing Commission increase the penalties for other white-collar crimes. These new regulations have changed the historical landscape of both public and law enforcement attitudes towards white-collar crime. In addition to traditional views on the causes of crime and deviance that focus on an individual's motivation or character, several other theories of crime deserve brief mention in relation to organized crime.
Based upon Marxist views of capitalism, Taylor, Walton, and Young argued that oppressed groups, such as the working class, women, and minorities, may take action against the dominant, capitalist culture in order to counteract that culture's social, economic, and political power As an upward law, or a law designed to punish dominant groups in society, rather than a downward law, which is designed to punish subordinate groups, hate crime laws are often underenforced.
Beginning with an historical review of hate crimes, this article moves on to a discussion of the causes of hate crimes, continues with ways in which hate crimes can be prevented, and ends with a debate over the merits of additional hate crime legislation on the federal level.
Sociologists have identified several ways in which hate can be manifested. These include physical attacks; property damage; bullying tactics; insults; and threatening phone calls, e-mails, text messages, instant messages, or letters.
While hate crimes have received considerable attention in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, the phenomenon is hardly new. One especially grievous example of hate crimes have been those perpetrated against the Jewish people since even before the time of Jesus, and culminating in the Holocaust during World War II, which is perhaps the greatest hate crime in human history.
Other well-known examples of hate crimes include genocides in Armenia, Bosnia, Rwanda, and Sudan; cross burnings, lynchings, and other actions of the Ku Klux Klan against African Americans in the United States; and threats and violence against gays and lesbians throughout the world.
In the twenty-first century, as migration patterns are resulting in a world that is more racially, ethnically, culturally, socially, and religiously mixed than it has ever been, hate crimes--crimes against the Other--have attracted considerable public attention. In some ways old hatreds have been given new life. Researchers have noted that the concept of a hate crime presupposes a community that is morally outraged at prejudice of all kinds, and any particularly prejudicial attitudes and actions toward presumptive victim groups.
According to Mason , hate crime. The process by which victim status is accorded to a given group is thus far from objective. Hate crimes in the United States have deep roots in American history and culture. Crimes of hatred and prejudice--from lynchings to cross burnings to vandalism of synagogues--are a sad fact of American history, but the term "hate crime" did not enter the nation's vocabulary until the s, when emerging hate groups like the Skinheads launched a wave of bias-related crime "Hate Crime," b.
In response to these disturbing trends, 45 states have passed hate crime laws. In case one turns out as guilty, they have to face the law by facing charges and are locked up in a prison or correctional institution where they are assisted how to change their behavior as well as how to integrate with the society upon release by becoming law abiding citizens. Corrections is a systematic and well organized effort aimed at punishing law offenders, protecting the public from such offenders, transforming the behavior of the offenders as well as compensating the victims to the offenders.
In order to offer correction to its law offenders, the US uses correctional facilities as the center points through which corrections are offered to any law offenders USToday, Relationship between criminal and social justice theories and the US constitution. Theories of law and criminal justice are a category of laws that attempt to explain the creation of laws as well as the operation of the criminal justice.
With these theories in the criminal justice, it becomes easier to understand and explain how the criminal justice works and the actors involved in the criminal justice system. For the longest time, the US viewed crime in terms of sentencing only.
However, with politics in place, punishment to criminals has taken up on a new perspective that considered rehabilitation more. Today, the issue of criminals being in jail is not just a matter of punishing them but also assisting them to be able to become useful members of the society upon their release from their incarceration term.
In the US constitution, it is as important to have a criminal in jail the same way it is important to have such a criminal change their behavior and become fully effective in the society upon release cliffnotes, Punishing a criminal by just having them serve a jail sentence is nothing more than given the criminal time to plan for revenge or even worse crimes upon their release Alkers and Sellers, It is for the reason of reducing repeat crimes and criminals that the theory of rehabilitation has been made a part of the criminal law in the US.
Although correctional rehabilitation has been proved useful in the case of first time offenders, it has not been as effective on the repeat and violent offenders however.
The above three theories, that is rehabilitation, incapacitation and deterrence are more concerned with the future by impacting on the present Alkers and Sellers, Centralization of the criminal justice.
In many world nations today, the issue of whether or not to centralize the criminal justice system is so contentious hence raising very heated debates. In the US however, the main aim is to have the criminal justice agencies like the police as centralized as possible. In this way, it becomes possible to achieve coordination of counter terrorism measures which is one of the US priorities especially after the September 11 terrorist attacks.
Although decentralization will be useful in dealing with the local crimes, international crimes in the form of terrorism groups can be effectively dealt with using the centralized criminal justice systems. In addition, it is the DHS that manage the Emergency Preparedness and Response directorate whose duties are identified in the provisions available in the homeland security act.
By coming up with a centralized criminal justice system, the US had the intention of controlling the international aspects of criminal and social justice. This way, all othernations in need of dealing with terrorism would seek for the US assistance or collaboration. From the paper, the crime has been discussed in details of crime scene investigation, techniques and security; the collection, preservation and presentation of the evidence; issues of related to correctional institutions, incarceration and release; criminal and social justice theories in relation to the US constitution; and the centralization of criminal justice agencies.
To begin with, any form of crime has a specific venue of occurrence and specific victims who are involved. In this case, crime scene investigation becomes handy especially in the identification of the criminal as well as the victims to the crime incidence. After identification of the evidence, it is presented in a court of law where the criminal is convicted for a jail term or just to send off as innocent. In the US today, criminals sentenced to serve jail terms face several issues in the correctional institutions such as medical care, rehabilitation, and others.
The US constitution plays a major role in both the criminal and social justice systems as it is responsible for the formation of theories for use in both systems. With these theories, laws are outlined on how to govern and operate the criminal justice system.
Wednesday, 01 August You can place an order similar to this with us. Rate this item 1 2 3 4 5 1 vote. Discussion Crime scene investigation Crime scene investigation or the CSI involves the process through which criminal investigators find and collect evidence at the scene of the crime. The process of crime scene investigation acts as or is viewed as the meeting point of three fields namely law, logic and science. The main thing involved is the processing of the crime scene which in most cases is a process so long and tedious.
This is as a result of the fact that this process involves lengthy documentation of the transpirations at the crime scene as well as collection of any physical evidence which in its being would be useful in the provision of necessary illumination or revelation of what exactly transpired at that given point and who exactly was involved.
For this reason, crime scene investigation has been transformed to refer to forensic science. This is because it is seen to encompass a wide range of sciences which are useful in the solving of questions that are concerned with the legal system. Since evidence is the most important part in identification of the criminal, then crime scene investigators are required to have excellent skills in the collection of evidence as well as processing it, photography and excellent skills in writing.
In their role of evidence collection, crime scene investigators are required to perform crime scene evidence collection very carefully and systematically Layton, To begin with, the victim reports the crime to the police. For instance, they must collect any dried blood from the pane of a window without brushing it off with their arms or any other part of their body.
This is necessary since at such a point, it is possible to have fingerprints which would be rubbed off in case of carelessness and this would mean rubbing it off hence doing away with very important piece of evidence Layton, Again, the tools like sledge hammer may be useful for breaking through walls beyond which terrible smells seem to be emerging.
Immediately the investigators arrive at the scene and makes sure that it is secure the process of evidence collection begins with the preliminary step of initial walk-through or the crime scene survey. The main intention of the initial walk through is in order to obtain the overall ambiance of the crime scene by identifying whether someone secretly moved in something none related to the crime between the occurrence of the crime and the arrival of the CSI.
Again, it is in the performance of initial walk-through or survey thatThe Crime scene investigation comes up with the first time theories founded on what is obtained from visual examination of the scene.
One thing worth noting is that the initial walk through stages does not involve any touching within the crime scene. Instead, only notes of potential evidence are made.
Crime scene investigation photography comes to play at this initial walk-through process since thorough documentation is done at through taking of photographs, and sketch drawing done. At this point, the initial walkthrough changes into second walk-through Home security, Other elements that can be included in the second walk through include the taking of video. Basically, the second walk-through goes a step ahead to document any identified evidence within the crime scene and still touches nothing just documenting every useful detail Home security, After the second walk-through, what follows is a determination of the sequence of evidence collection to be used for the entire crime investigation process.
The sequence may be based on information like the location of the scene which could be interior, exterior or within a vehicle; the evidence condition which means could be fragile or stable; the condition of the weather based on how such would affect the evidence at the crime scene; the conditions for scene management depending on whether they will contaminate or alter the evidence and finally the any other additional techniques that needs to be incorporates by other specialized persons.
Apart from identifying the information to determine the evidence collection sequence, the crime scene investigators must ensure that they secure the evidence through the use of the right tools and equipment to conduct the crimes scene evidence collection Home security, The use of appropriate tools and equipment during crime scene investigation becomes handy when collecting all the potential evidence systematically and in the most appropriate way possible.
One condition concerning the evidence collection tools is that they should be sterile. Such tools include latex gloves, forceps, forceps, tweezers, plastic and paper bags, hand tools, thermometers, cardboard boxes, swabs and scalpels amongst others. At the scene of the crime, there could be different kinds of evidence. The main categories include the dried material and the liquid material.
Each of these materials requires different collection methods or techniques. This brings us to the two main evidence collection techniques at the crime scene which are the dried material collection technique and the liquid material collection technique. Although this are the best practices in evidence collection at the crime scene, biological evidence whether liquid or dry at the crime scene should be recovered using the swabbing technique. In the dried material collection technique, investigator first wears gloves and then uses distilled water t moisten the swab.
With moistening, this simply means dampening but not making overly wet. Next, follows the rubbing of the stained area using a single moistened swab in the case of a small stain or use of multiple swabs in the case of large stain.
On the other hand, very little or small stains call for greater concentration as this would mean using the tip of the swab to collect as much of the evidence available as possible.
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Research within librarian-selected research topics on Criminology and Crime from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals, magazines, newspapers and more.
If you have an assignment to compose a research paper in criminal justice, be sure to read the article below, explaining how to pick up a good topic for it How to find great research paper topics for criminal justice. Crime Research and Measurement Research Paper Topics. Research Paper Topics on Theories of Crime and Justice: Biological Theory. Classical Criminology. Convict Criminology. Criminal the central components of criminal justice research paper topics (law enforcement, courts, and corrections) are presented from a criminology–criminal justice outlook that increasingly purports to leverage theory.
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