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Limitations and weakness of quantitative research methods

Improper representation of the target population

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More Industrial overview of India. Limitations and weakness of quantitative research methods By Priya Chetty on September 7, Improper representation of the target population As mentioned in the article , improper representation of the target population might hinder the researcher for achieving its desired aims and objectives. Lack of resources for data collection Quantitative research methodology usually requires a large sample size. But to know what are the strategies applied by the manager to motivate the employee or on what parameters the employee does not feel motivated if responded no , the researcher has to ask broader questions which somewhat has limited scope in close-ended questionnaires Expensive and time consuming Quantitative research is difficult, expensive and requires a lot of time to be perform the analysis.

Difficulty in data analysis Quantitative study requires extensive statistical analysis, which can be difficult to perform for researchers from non- statistical backgrounds.

Requirement of extra resources to analyse the results The requirements for the successful statistical confirmation of result is very tough in a quantitative research.

Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice , 6 2 , pp. Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers. The Qualitative Report , 13 4 , pp. Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method. Qualitative Research Journal , 9 2 , pp. The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing , 62 1 , pp. The Case for Qualitative Research. Academy of Management Journal , 5 4 , pp. Mass spectrometric-based approaches in quantitative proteomics.

Methods , 29 2 , pp. Research Methods for Business Students 5th ed. Journal of Dairy Science , 84 4 , pp. Dissertation and scholarly research: Recipes for success , Seattle, W. Processes, Assessment and Effects Springer Theses.

Limitations and weakness of qualitative research methods Importance of ethical considerations in a research About Latest Posts.

Priya Chetty Partner at Project Guru. Priya Chetty writes frequently about advertising, media, marketing and finance. She emphasizes more on refined content for Project Guru's various paid services. She has also reviewed about various insights of the social insider by writing articles about what social media means for the media and marketing industries.

Latest posts by Priya Chetty see all Demographic data representation in Nvivo - September 6, Data analysis by generating Nvivo coding query - September 5, Creating and managing Nvivo memo - September 5, Hire us for research analysis. Related articles Sampling plan in a business research When making inferences from data analysis, sample assumes a primary position. Sample for any research is selected by following a particular sampling plan.

Importance of research approach in a research Research approach is a plan and procedure that consists of the steps of broad assumptions to detailed method of data collection, analysis and interpretation.

Quantitative research involves creating a hypothesis and identifying statistics to explain research findings. Using quantitative research has many advantages. For example, quantitative research allows a researcher to objectively detail evidence. However, quantitative research also has disadvantages. Qualitative research relies on specific evidence rather than generalized research. For example, qualitative research allows a researcher to use a case study to illustrate a phenomenon.

Data collection is based on participants' meanings rather than a more objective collection of statistics. Qualitative research often involves cross-case comparisons. Qualitative research tends to cause a researcher to become immersed in the research topic. For example, a researcher using qualitative research may conduct in-depth interviews, interact with participants and rely on her own observations. A researcher using quantitative research methods remains separated from the subject matter.

In quantitative survey studies, it is important to select probability samples so that statistics can be used to provide generalizations to the population from which the sample was drawn. Qualitative research necessitates having a small sample because of the detailed and intensive work required for the study.

So sample sizes are not calculated using mathematical rules and probability statistics are not applied. Instead qualitative researchers should describe their sample in terms of characteristics and relevance to the wider population.

Purposive sampling is common in qualitative research. Particular individuals are chosen with characteristics relevant to the study who are thought will be most informative. Purposive sampling also may be used to produce maximum variation within a sample.

Participants being chosen based for example, on year of study, gender, place of work, etc. Representative samples also may be used, for example, 20 students from each of 6 schools of pharmacy. Convenience samples involve the researcher choosing those who are either most accessible or most willing to take part. This may be fine for exploratory studies; however, this form of sampling may be biased and unrepresentative of the population in question.

Theoretical sampling uses insights gained from previous research to inform sample selection for a new study. The method for gaining informed consent from the participants should be described, as well as how anonymity and confidentiality of subjects were guaranteed. The method of recording, eg, audio or video recording, should be noted, along with procedures used for transcribing the data. A description of how the data were analyzed also should be included. A good rule when considering how much information to include is that readers should have been given enough information to be able to carry out similar research themselves.

One of the strengths of qualitative research is the recognition that data must always be understood in relation to the context of their production. If the analysis was repeated by more than 1 researcher to ensure reliability or trustworthiness, this should be stated and methods of resolving any disagreements clearly described. Some researchers ask participants to check the data. If this was done, it should be fully discussed in the paper.

An adequate account of how the findings were produced should be included A description of how the themes and concepts were derived from the data also should be included. Was an inductive or deductive process used? The analysis should not be limited to just those issues that the researcher thinks are important, anticipated themes, but also consider issues that participants raised, ie, emergent themes.

Qualitative researchers must be open regarding the data analysis and provide evidence of their thinking, for example, were alternative explanations for the data considered and dismissed, and if so, why were they dismissed?

Qualitative data conventionally are presented by using illustrative quotes. There should be an explanation of how the quotes were chosen and how they are labeled. For example, have pseudonyms been given to each respondent or are the respondents identified using codes, and if so, how?

It is important for the reader to be able to see that a range of participants have contributed to the data and that not all the quotes are drawn from 1 or 2 individuals. There is a tendency for authors to overuse quotes and for papers to be dominated by a series of long quotes with little analysis or discussion.

This should be avoided. Participants do not always state the truth and may say what they think the interviewer wishes to hear. A good qualitative researcher should not only examine what people say but also consider how they structured their responses and how they talked about the subject being discussed, for example, the person's emotions, tone, nonverbal communication, etc. If the research was triangulated with other qualitative or quantitative data, this should be discussed.

The findings should be presented in the context of any similar previous research and or theories. A discussion of the existing literature and how this present research contributes to the area should be included. A consideration must also be made about how transferrable the research would be to other settings. Any particular strengths and limitations of the research also should be discussed. It is common practice to include some discussion within the results section of qualitative research and follow with a concluding discussion.

The author also should reflect on their own influence on the data, including a consideration of how the researcher s may have introduced bias to the results. The researcher should critically examine their own influence on the design and development of the research, as well as on data collection and interpretation of the data, eg, were they an experienced teacher who researched teaching methods?

If so, they should discuss how this might have influenced their interpretation of the results. The conclusion should summarize the main findings from the study and emphasize what the study adds to knowledge in the area being studied. Mays and Pope suggest the researcher ask the following 3 questions to determine whether the conclusions of a qualitative study are valid How well does this analysis explain why people behave in the way they do? How comprehensible would this explanation be to a thoughtful participant in the setting?

How well does the explanation cohere with what we already know? This paper establishes criteria for judging the quality of qualitative research. It provides guidance for authors and reviewers to prepare and review qualitative research papers for the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. A checklist is provided in Appendix 1 to assist both authors and reviewers of qualitative data.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Am J Pharm Educ. Univeristy of Nottingham, Nottingham United Kingdom. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The purpose of this paper is to help authors to think about ways to present qualitative research papers in the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Types of qualitative data include: Audio recordings and transcripts from in-depth or semi-structured interviews.

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Qualitative research provides valuable data for use in the design of a product—including data about user needs, behavior patterns, and use cases. Each of these approaches has strengths and weaknesses, and each can benefit .

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Qualitative research displays its own strengths however, this is also associated with some disadvantages and these include the following: • The quality of research is heavily dependent on the skills of the researcher and can be easily influenced by personal idiosyncrasies and biases of researchers.

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Comparatively evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. II. Literature Reviews The Strengths of Quantitative Research Methodology The quantitative as survey approach has two significant advantages. First, it can be administered and evaluated quickly. Strengths and Weakness of The Qualitative Research Method Essay Words 12 Pages This essay intends to compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of the quantitative and qualitative approaches to research which addresses young people and bullying using two journal articles.

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the strengths and limitations of Qualitative research focusing on its shortcomings and how Quantitative research can overcome these shortcomings. The paper concludes that an eclectic approach to educational. Strengths. Weaknesses. Flexibility to evolve. Sampling focuses on high value subjects. Holistic focus (looking at the “big picture”). Multiple sources provide understanding of complex situations and behavior.