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Total Phenolic Contents of Neem Tree Essay Sample

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Total Phenolic Contents of Neem Tree Essay Sample

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Products made from neem have been used in India for over two millennia for their medicinal properties. They are said to be antifungal, antidiabetic , antibacterial , antiviral , contraceptive and sedative. Neem products are also used in selectively controlling pests in plants. Neem is considered a part of Ayurvedic medicine. Neem is also known as the' village pharmacy'. All parts of neem are used for preparing many different medicines, especially for skin disease. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For hemorrhoids, apply some neem oil to a cotton ball and gently rub for about a week. If preferred a paste can be made by adding a small amount of olive oil or Aloe Vera oil until desired consistency is reached. To prevent hair loss and enhance growth, mix a few drops of neem oil with coconut or olive oil and massage into scalp.

This will even prevent your hair from graying! Neem oil can be applied to cuts and abrasions to help them heal quickly. Neem increases blood flow which aids in creating the collagen fibers that helps the wounds to close. As a treatment for burns and even sunburn, neem oil can kill the bacteria, reduce the pain and stimulate the immune system.

By stimulating the immune system it speeds up the healing process and there is less scarring. To kill head lice, neem oil should be massaged into the scalp and left on over night.

Shampoo your hair as usual the next morning. Neem detoxifies the body and helps maintain healthy circulatory systems, digestive and respiratory systems and helps to keep the urinary tract free of infections. Scientific evidence has shown that neem is valuable in boosting the bodies immune system.

A healthier immune system helps your body in fighting off many illness and diseases. Laboratory studies have proven neem to be effective in treating the symptoms of food poisoning associated with both salmonella and staphylococcus. Neem extracts kill the salmonella bacteria and flush it out of your system, reducing the severity and length of the ailment.

A neem paste applied directly to the sores caused by chicken pox, will relieve the itching and reduce scarring. Neem tea drank once or twice weekly can even help prevent colds. If you already have the symptoms associated with a cold they can be lessened by drinking neem tea three times a day. It will help alleviate the fever, cough, aches and pains, sore throat, fatigue and nasal congestion.

Neem also contains powerful anti-fungal properties that have been shown to aide in the treatment of athletes foot, yeast infections, thrush and even ringworm. The neem extract can actually block the infection that causes this virus. Drinking neem tea during an outbreak of influenza will help alleviate some of the symptoms and speed up the recovery time. Neem has an amazing ability to literally surround viruses and prevent them from even infecting the cells. Use of a neem based powder for jock itch will reduce the itching, dry the area and kill the fungus.

Thawing can rupture cell membranes leading to changes in phenolics. If the material is frozen using a freezer, make sure that the material is not thawed during transport. Solid carbon dioxide should be used to transport such material. Once the material is dried, it should be kept in a dry place, preferably in a desiccator in the dark.

The freeze-dried material generally is hygroscopic. Light is also known to change the nature of phenolics. After freeze-drying, the cell structure is broken and the enzymes are in the native state. With the absorption of water, enzymes and phenolics can react, which can produce drastic changes in phenolics. The freeze-drying, though considered to be one of the safest method for preservation of phenolics, can lead to drastic changes if the storage conditions are not appropriate.

If a lyophilizer is not available, the plant material has to be dried under far from ideal conditions. This will hasten the process of drying, and the enzymes present in the plant sample will not have much time to react with phenolics. Fresh or frozen materials are difficult to work with. Grinding could be a problem using these materials. One has to be cautious that the temperature does not rise during homogenization; increase in temperature can lead to enzymatic changes in phenolics.

Phenolics are generally extracted in aqueous organic solvents. The moisture present in the fresh material needs to be taken into account while preparing organic solvents for extraction. It is suggested to grind the sample after drying it. About g of the plant material should be ground first to pass a 2 mm screen.

If the ground samples in a desiccator are kept in a refrigerator, the desiccator must be opened after the contents has reached the ambient temperature, otherwise moisture will condense on the sample which will lead to changes in the state of phenolics during storage.

For the extraction process, a suitable solvent is required. It has been reported by various workers to be better in extracting phenolics from plant materials. Dried finely ground plant material 20 g is taken in a glass flasks of approximately ml capacity. Collect the supernatant and keep it on ice. Centrifuge and collect supernatant as described above. Measurement of Total Phenolics and Tannins using the Folin-Ciocalteu Method According to Makkar et al, the method for total phenol is useful in order to know the efficiency of extraction of phenolics in solvents.

The results can be expressed as tannic acid equivalent. The nature of tannic acid varies from one commercial source to the other.

Tannic acid from Merck was found to be the best. Dilute commercially available Folin-Ciocalteu reagent 2 N with an equal volume of distilled water. It should be golden in color. Do not use it if it turns olive green. Weigh 40 g sodium carbonate, dissolve it in about ml distilled water and make up to ml with distilled water. Dissolve 25 mg tannic acid TA obtained from Merck in 25 ml distilled water and then dilute 1: Vortex the tubes for 40 minutes then record the absorbance at nm. Calculate the slope and the intercept and obtain the equation of the line.

Take suitable aliquots of tannin-containing extract, initially 0. Vortex the tubes for 40 minutes and measure its absorption at nm. Calculate the amount of total phenolics as Tannic Acid equivalent from the calibration curve. Sephadex LH is a liquid chromatography medium designed for molecular sizing of natural products; it is a beaded cross-linked dextran that has been hydroxypropylated to yield a chromatography medium with both hydrophilic and lipophilic character.

Tannins adsorb to Sephadex LH in alcohol while small phenolics elute from the material. Tannins can then be eluted with aqueous acetone. Chromatography on Sephadex LH is very useful for separating Tannin from non-tannin phenolics. Since the isolation requires a column, wash it with several bed volumes of ethanol after packing the column. Plant extracts of different volumes are applied to the column after removing all acetone from the sample through rotary evaporation.

If no UV monitor is available, use 1 liter of Ethanol to elute the sample. This eluate is not monitored in the UV because of the strong absorption of acetone. Continue washing until the beads return to their original color. Combine all tannin fractions and use rotary evaporator to remove all solvents.

The tannin collected should be placed in vials and stored in dark freezers. Preparation of Culture Media. Generalized and specialized media are required for the growth of bacteria.

Culture media is an artificial soil that contains nutritional and environmental requirements for the nourishment and reproduction of microorganisms. The media that are used in laboratories to culture bacteria are referred to as artificial media or synthetic media, because they do not occur naturally, rather, they are prepared in the laboratory.

Dispense 10 mL of the prepared Nutrient Broth in clean test tubes and put a cotton plug right away. Mixing should be done over an ordinary water bath. Heat the solution over a flame source and boil until all solids are dissolved. Transfer the solution to smaller containers, such as Erlenmeyer flasks and cover it with cotton plugs. Place all the prepared Nutrient Broth and Nutrient Agar in an autoclave. Also put cotton swabs, forceps, Petri dishes and punched filter papers which will be used for the next experiments.

Sterilize the apparatuses at 15 psi and oC for 15 minutes. Perform sub-culturing by transferring a loop full of the pure culture of each organism to different sterile Nutrient Broth with the use of an inoculating loop aseptically. Set aside the cultures and let them multiply for a day. Sterile Nutrient Agar is transferred to sets of sterile Petri dishes aseptically.

Wait until the plates solidify, and prepare them for inoculation. Inoculation to the Culture Media Inoculation is the process for adding specimen to the culture medium. Cultures from this study are obtained from a plated medium. Remove excess inoculums by lightly pressing the swab against the tube at a level above that of the Nutrient broth. Inoculate the Agar plate by streaking with the swab containing the inoculums.

Rotate the plate by 60o and repeat the streaking using the same swab. Repeat the rotating and streaking procedure five times to ensure an even distribution of the inoculums. Allow the surface of the culture to dry for seven minutes to allow the absorption of the excess moisture, repeat the procedure for four other plates with the use of other sets of cotton swabs. Do the same procedure for Staphylococcus aureus. According to Engelkirk , an antibacterial agent will be accepted if it inhibits or destroys the pathogen without destroying the host.

To accomplish this, the agent must target a metabolic process or structures possessed by the pathogen but not by the host.

Used for flame sterilization of the forceps 6. Immediately after allowing the plated cultures to absorb the moisture, prepare them for the anti-bacterial test.

Dip the sterile filter paper halfway in the Acetonic Tannin of different concentrations with the help of a flame sterilized forceps. Place the filter papers at each of the center of the five plated cultures. Incubate the plates invertedly at 37oC until the next two days and measure the diameter of the zone of clearance if there is any of it formed. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration MBC of the Acetonic Tannin based on this study can also be determined by the culture giving the smallest zone of clearance or none at all.

Correlation Analysis is concerned with the relationship in the changes of the given variables; the relationship can be computed and shown in a scatter Diagram Cruz, et al. The formulas for this test are: ANOVA is a method for partitioning the variation observed in experimental data into different parts, each part attributable to a known source.

This statistical test of significance is employed when three or more groups are involved and when the variable measured is of the ratio or interval type.

It assumes that the deviation of a measurement from the population mean is made up of two components. These components are the deviation of a measurement from the mean of the group where it belongs and the deviation of the group mean from the population Sevilla, et al.

Transition elements contain ions that present in aqueous solution as complex ions. A metal ion with a molecule called a ligand are called complex ion and it attached through coordinate covalent bonds. A complex salt is an ionic compound but it differs in the fact that there are these covalent bonds attaching the metal to the ligand.

For example in iron II ion, it exists in Introduction Titration is defined as technique whereby one solution of accurately known concentration also known as the titrant is added slowly into another solution of unknown concentration until a neutralization reaction is reached.

There are several types of titration methods in chemistry. Firstly, is the acid-base titration method which was carried out during this experiment. In the strong acid-weak base titration, 0. Ammonium hydroxide was then titrated slowly into the conical flask and the conical flask was swirled gently to ensure the reaction is The compounds you will work with do have some hazards associated with them. Therefore, it is important to follow the safety rules outlined in this lab manual.

You should assume that all compounds encountered in the laboratory are toxic and handle them accordingly. Safety goggles for eye protection are recommended and lab coats are Introduction Currently, fertilizers used on the West Coast are made and then transported from other parts of New Zealand. Because fertilizers have a reasonably large mass the cost of this transport can be expensive.

This report will investigate the processes involved in making superphosphate fertilizer, including the manufacture of sulfuric acid from sulfur using the contact process. Also in this report will be an outline Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website.

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the neem tree essaysAzadirachta indica, Meliaceae, nim or neem tree, margosa tree. Tree from SE Asia and East Indies yielding an antiseptic resin used medicinally and in toothpaste, soaps, and lotions. Location: near mauka-Diamond Head corner of Burns Hall. AGRICULTURE: Neem has been reported to.

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Essay on Neem Tree Leaves as Insect Repellant NEEM TREE LEAVES AS INSECT REPELLANT An Investigatory Project ABSTRACT This investigatory project deals with the processing of Neem Tree Leaves (Azadiracha Indica) and utilizing them as .

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Neem Tree Leaves as Insect Repellant Essay Sample. ABSTRACT This investigatory project deals with the processing of Neem Tree Leaves (Azadiracha Indica) and utilizing them as insect repellant. Free Essays on The Neem Tree. Get help with your writing. 1 through